The depth of field is an element of the photographic language that when we compose our images. Use a wide depth of field allows us to incorporate in our photograph multitude of information plans and if we give more importance to an item to another, we use other photographic elements such as composition, lighting and color. However, using a depth of field small limits us a little more in this area as there will be many fewer elements in the composition that draw attention to the eye to see the image. What kinds of picture usually are best worn with small depths of field?
The most important part of a portrait is usually the area of the eyes. Therefore, the fact of using a small depth of field will help us to enhance this part of the face: make other factions remain out of focus and therefore, in the background within the composition of the photograph. When we go to use a small depth of field in a portrait, we must be very careful at the time of approach because the fact of having so little focused area in our image may be that the slightest mistake by focusing tear us a photograph. Therefore, we must look at we’re really focusing on the eyes and not, for example, the bridge of the nose, lips or ears.
Furthermore, using a small depth of field in portraits has another benefit and that is to isolate the subject from the background: if we keep the person focused only appear on our image (or at least part of it, as eyes), other elements entering into the composition be out of focus and that includes the background. If we use a suitable aperture and focal length and shoot far enough away from the subject, the background can get to be completely neutral and, therefore, to help us focus our picture viewer fully into the subject we present focused. No distractions, no context. Obviously, there may be situations where this does not interest us, in your hand is you always decide what is the depth of field you need to get the picture you want to do.
The Photography of Detail
It is clear: if we want to photograph a small portion of something or someone, we can get the rest from / subject / object environment be nullified. There are many ways to do this: composition (e.g. looking for an angle of vision that we hide certain elements), lighting (keeping certain elements in the shade) or even the same depth of field. A small depth of field allows us to keep the viewer’s attention to detail we want to show. And if we are able to use a proper depth of field, while we, too, in a way we contextualize that detail without the rest of the frame elements stolen prominence. Note, too, that you must not let anything that interests you out of focus so make sure it really is what you need when you go to look for the minimum depth of field.
The photograph macro usually has a reduced depth of field almost by definition. For such photographs are often used very long focal (either targets or using accessories like extension tubes) and also tend to focus subjects from very short distances. Thus, of the three elements necessary to reduce the depth of field (short distance between the camera and the subject, long focal length and large aperture), in macro photography find, almost without exception, two of them. The third, i.e. using an open aperture usually appears also in these photographs, to work with the fact that a lot of light is needed to illuminate these images (the focal lengths and accessories like tubes or bellows often greatly reduce the brightness of the shots).
Anyway, for macro photography, and as it happened with the portraits, the shallower depth of field will help us get a background homogeneous image, do not call much attention and, therefore, allow us to focus better the main subject that occupies us. It is possible that some of the photographs in macro not interest you have a small depth of field (especially because this part of your subject is out of focus) although Unless you have the ability to externally illuminate the subject (and therefore, you can close diaphragm) can be given the fact that you have to deal, or yes, a very small focused area. Make tests and searches for the best combination of parameters for your photo remains as you like.
The Abstract Photography
When we speak of it said that the best way to get an abstract photograph was decontextualizing the main subject of the image, i.e. isolate it from all that surround you. So if we use a very limited depth of field, it will be easier to isolate the protagonist of our picture, or at least have less to worry about the elements in the composition (for example, the fund is likely to be completely out of focus and, therefore, is not easy to recognize the environment in which the subject is located).
Not exactly a type of photography, but it is a style that can earn much more expressive if we accompany it with a small depth of field. Sometimes we get our images convey softness. Use a small depth of field and, therefore, use of selective focus will help us in this mission. The main subject of our photograph will be blurred surrounded elements and, therefore, smooth appearance. It is especially useful for pictures of babies or maternity, for example.
Reduce the depth of field in our photographs is a striking alternative as it offers very colorful results that our eye is not very used. However, we must be clear that, like all photographic techniques (and that can be extrapolated to the art world in general) are not always valid.
In this case, it will serve to highlight an item above the rest but you really should highlight to get the image you want? Are you highlighting the subject you should? And, most importantly, are you going to highlight it as you should do? Be aware that there are many ways to give prominence to a subject and perhaps not selective approach which works best for you.